Write CSS OR LESS and hit save. Dosatron launched “smart dosing” with their newest medicator system. Lawless, H. 1991. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 per cent of the poultry meat will be tender. Poultry Science 70:188-191. Appearance (Color) ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging and storage. Stressor agent Species Effects observed on meat quality Reference Heat stress Poultry Higher incidence of pale, soft, exudative (PSE) meat and decrease in the a* value of meat; Extreme environmental temperatures or stress due to live handling before processing can cause broiler and turkey breast meat to be discolored. Primal or wholesale cuts 3. The Handbook of Meat, Poultry and Seafood Quality commences with a discussion of basic scientific factors responsible for the quality of fresh, frozen and processed muscle foods, especially sensory attributes and flavors. For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. ), scalding temperatures, chilling, product packaging, and storage; however, these effects are too small for consumers to notice. To avoid this toughening, meat is usually 'aged' for 6 to 24 hours before deboning. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavor when they are eating it. II. Appearance is critical for both the consumers' initial selection of the product as well as for final product satisfaction. Before poultry meat quality is addressed, the term quality should be clearly defined as it relates to poultry. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink color when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw. Read the USDA's monthly poultry and egg report and see updates on Asia's bird flu outbreak in this week's Poultry Digest. 1-30. This occurs because breast muscle accounts for a large portion of the live weight (about 5 per cent), it is more sensitive to factors that contribute to discoloration, and the already light appearance makes small changes in colour more noticeable. The most important aspect of poultry meat is its eating quality – the state of the animal at slaughter. Fletcher, D. L. 1997. Optimal carcass quality Following [2] pre-slaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality can be divided into two categories: long-term effect and those who have short term effect. High pre-slaughter stunning, high scalding temperatures, longer scalding times and machine picking can also cause poultry meat to be tough. The amount of “blood” present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Mugler and Cunningham (1972) reviewed many of the factors affecting poultry meat colour. This stiffening is called rigor mortis. Minor effects on meat flavour are related to bird strain, diet, environmental conditions (litter, ventilation, etc. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. Demand and supply driven: Demand-side factors affecting the global poultry sector Growth of the poultry industry has been both demand and supply driven. The poultry industry generally tries to identify where (field or plant), how, and when the injuries occur, but this is often difficult to determine. After consumers buy a poultry product, they relate the quality of that product to its texture and flavour when they are eating it. When these muscles are removed from the carcass, they contract and become tough. However, this is costly for the processor. These factors must be identified and accommodated at every stage, from the parent stock to the fertilized egg, through hatchery operations and broiler farms, right down to processing and delivery to the end consumer. Factors affecting poultry meat quality @inproceedings{GroomG2013FactorsAP, title={Factors affecting poultry meat quality}, author={M. GroomG. Biological, physiological, nutritional, and environmental factors during the growing period could influence the susceptibility of poultry to PSE and have a final impact on meat quality. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. To satisfy these demands, poultry producers must consider every factor that may affect the final quality of the meat they produce. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste and feel good in their mouth. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer's perspective of quality is more appropriate. stressor agents can affect meat quality in the species. The nutritional quality of meat is objective yet “eating” quality, as perceived by the consumer, is highly subjective. In the live bird, the same treatment causes meat to be tough but after death, the treatment causes tender deboned poultry meat within two hours post-mortem instead of the four to six hours required with normal aging. Julie K. Northcutt The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1 but the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odour to account for the characteristic 'poultry' flavour. Quality attributes of a food product, Figure 2. Long-term factors acting throughout the life of the bird, such as genetics, physiology, and disease management. Meat quality is normally defined by the compositional quality (lean to fat ratio) and the palatability factors such as visual appearance, smell, firmness, juiciness, tenderness, and flavor. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, 'bloody' red colour with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh colour 120 hours later (Table 1). Long-term factors… Pork 42. Both taste and odor contribute to the flavor of poultry, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption (Figure 3). Research Note: Shear value ranges by Instron Warner-Bratzler and single-blade Allo-Kramer devices that correspond to sensory tenderness. Although electrical stimulation is still in the developmental stages, it seems that processors using it can debone carcasses right out of the chiller and save on their equipment costs, time, space and energy requirements. Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture and flavour. Food Quality 14:33-60. This is different from energy depletion in the live bird which causes meat to be tough. 1992. On the other hand, if the processor waits 6 hours before deboning, 70 to 80 percent of the poultry meat will be tender (Figure 2). 2.3 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: genotype ..... 24 2.4 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: sex ..... 29 2.5 Factors affecting quality of poultry meat: rearing conditions and production practices ..... 29 2.6 Future trends: improving poultry quality ..... 32 Contents In poultry, edible components include meat, skin with subcutaneous fat and giblets (gizzard, liver, and heart) and sometimes also abdominal fat in waterfowl. This is a difficult task, because quality is “in the eye of the beholder.” For example, someone trying to sell a product might view its quality in terms of how well it sells and how much people are willing to pay for it. 1989. Beef 41. pp. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. All rights reserved. Poultry meat colour is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre-slaughter conditions and processing variables. Fabricated cuts 39. "Dr. Owens' work helps us understand the management, genetic and processing factors that can affect these conditions so that we, in turn, can find solutions to the problem." Colour of meat depends upon the presence of the muscle pigments myoglobin and haemoglobin. Texture is the single most important sensory property affecting final quality assessment. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Eventually, muscles become soft again, which means that they are tender when cooked. Flavor Poultry is unique because it is sold with and without its skin. When electricity is applied to the dead bird, the treatment acts like a nerve impulse, and causes the muscle to contract, use up energy and enter rigor mortis at a faster rate. However, modern production practices produce highly … When poultry is cooked, flavor develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. The effect of deboning time on cooked meat tenderness. When poultry is cooked, flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamin degradation. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. Poultry Trends contains both regional and global statistics on poultry meat and eggs, covering production, consumption, trade, and the leading poultry producers and feed manufacturers worldwide. Proceedings Georgia International Poultry Course, Athens, GA. Gregory, N.G. Muscles that are deboned during early postmortem still have energy available for contraction. There are times when poultry meat does not have the expected colour, and this has created some special problems for the poultry industry. Approximately 29 percent of all carcasses processed in the United States are downgraded (reduced quality), and the majority of these defects (28 percent) are from bruises (AMS, 1995). The colour of the bruise, the amount of 'blood' present, and the extent of the 'blood clot' formation in the affected area are good indicators of the age of the injury and may give some clues as to its origin. Whether or not poultry meat is tender depends upon the rate and extent of the chemical and physical changes occurring in the muscle as it becomes meat. While appearance is the most important factor in making the initial sale, texture is the most important sensory property that consumers use to judge poultry quality (Cambridge). Management of poultry meat production is reflected mostly on consumption features (juiciness, tenderness, flavour) of meat. Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts of poultry is influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning. Nutrition of birds has a significant impact on poultry meat quality and safety. The two most important quality attributes for poultry meat are appearance and texture. The producer, processor, retailer and consumer all have specific expectations for the quality attributes of poultry in Figure 1; however, the ultimate authority will always be the consumer. When an animal dies, blood stops circulating, and there is no new supply of oxygen or nutrients to the muscles. Quality requirements in the modern poultry industry. Author/s : R. Scott Beyer, Poultry Specialist - EP-127 publication, Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service Many factors affect egg quality. and J, L. Fry INFORMATION ON POULTRY MEAT YIELDS and the many factors affect­ ing these yields is becoming increasingly important. 2.3 FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER PERCEPTION ON MEAT QUALITY Main factors or quality cues that most contributes to the consumers’ perception on beef meat quality are the intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues. Meeting these eating quality expectations and giving consumers confidence in their beef and sheepmeat purchases is the purpose of Meat Standards Australia (MSA). III. Catching Damage. Few factors during production and processing affect poultry meat flavor. To avoid this toughening, meat is usually “aged” for 6 to 24 hours before deboning; however, this is costly for the processor. The poultry industry has recently started using post-slaughter electrical stimulation immediately after death to hasten rigor development of carcasses and reduce 'aging' time before deboning. The inclusio… The elements an inspector looks for include, is the meat tender? Imports of chlorine-washed poultry could impact on UK quality standards. Discoloration of poultry can be related to the amount of these pigments that are present in the meat, the chemical state of the pigments, or the way in which light is reflected off of the meat. When consumers buy a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families, they expect it to look, taste, and feel good in their mouth. Poultry processing affects meat quality by establishing the chemistry of the muscle constituents and their interactions within the muscle structure. Since people only buy what they like, the consumer’s perspective of quality is more appropriate. The extent of the discoloration is related to each bird's individual response to the conditions. Such factors as bird sex, age, strain, processing procedures, chemical exposure, cooking temperature, irradiation, and freezing conditions were all shown to affect poultry meat colour. In order to meet the consumers’ growing demands for high-quality protein, the poultry industry focused on selection of fast-growing broilers, which reach a body mass of about 2.5 kg within 6-week-intensive fattening. Injuries that occur in the field are usually magnified by processing plant equipment or handling conditions in the plant. When an entire muscle is discolored, it is frequently the breast muscle. The energy source used in the diet is also a factor for determining meat quality. These documents were written by Jose J. Br…. Besides, high stocking density may be associated with a surge in airborne pathogens. Following sections discuss factors affecting the quality of beef, pork, poultry, and seafood. These chemical changes are not unique to poultry, but the lipids and fats in poultry are unique and combine with odor to account for the characteristic “poultry” flavor. The texture of these muscles tends to be tough because energy was reduced in the live bird. Julie K. Northcutt of The University of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service discussed some of the factors affecing appearance, texture and flavour in the University's Bulletin 1157 published in June 1997. Anything that interferes with the formation of rigor mortis, or the softening process that follows it, will affect meat tenderness. and B. Sauveur}, year={2013} } Broiler Industry 55:14-16. Live production affects poultry meat quality by determining the state of the animal at slaughter. Factors Affecting Poultry Meat Yields M. H. Swanson, C. W. Carlson. The amount of 'blood' present and the extent of clot formation are useful in distinguishing if the injury occurred during catching/transportation or during processing. Sometimes the cause is not a single factor but a combination of factors. Age of the bird at slaughter (young or mature birds) affect the flavor of the meat. Although there are a number of characteristics that determine the overall quality of meat (Figure 1), the following discussion will focus only on appearance, texture, and flavor. This is a difficult task because quality is 'in the eye of the beholder'. "Negative consumer experience with poor meat quality can impact where or what type of products of poultry they purchase if the product quality gets bad enough," Cooper said. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. Color of cooked or raw poultry meat is important because consumers associate it with the product’s freshness, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness. Chicken meat is considered as an easily available source of high-quality protein and other nutrients that are necessary for proper body functioning. Age, together with species and environmental conditions, is one of the key factors affecting body growth rate. However, modern production practices produce highly uniform young birds in which the major problems associated with meat texture are the result of processing errors or early deboning. Many factors can adversely affect egg production. Poultry meat quality is a complex and multivariate property, which is affected by multiple interacting factors including genetics, feeding, husbandry, pre-slaughter handling, stunning and slaughter procedures, chilling, processing and storage conditions. A similar pattern occurs when birds are exposed to environmental stress (hot or cold temperatures) before slaughter. If these characteristics do not meet the consumer's expectation, the product is considered to be of lower quality. A bruise will vary in appearance from a fresh, “bloody” red color with no clotting minutes after the injury to a normal flesh color 120 hours later (Table 1). References. Meat Cuts, Types of Meat and Poultry and Aging 38. The discoloration can occur in an entire muscle, or it can be limited to a specific area, such as a bruise or a broken blood vessel. ©2000 ‐ 2021 ‐ Global Ag Media. Many produc­ ers who sell on a yield basis are interested in how improved breed­ ing, nutrition, and management would affect their returns. A diet with lower than recommended protein reduces the yield of meat and increases the fat content of the carcass and saturation of the carcass fat. Another major cause of poultry meat discoloration is bruising. Copyright © 2020 Poultryproducer.com . Flavour is another quality attribute that consumers use to determine the acceptability of poultry meat. Quality of Poultry Meat: Texture and Color. Poultry meat color is affected by factors such as bird age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, preslaughter conditions and processing variables. Without oxygen and nutrients, muscles run out of energy, and they contract and become stiff. Breast meat is expected to have a pale pink colour when it is raw, while thigh and leg meat are expected to be dark red when raw.